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Text 4  - Учебное пособие для студентов II курса специальности


Text 4 

^ I. Listen and repeat:

comprise

[kqm'praIz]

включать; содержать

pipeline

road-cum-rail bridge

reinforced

cable-stayed bridge

beam bridge

frame-type bridge

beam-cantilever bridge

combined half-through bridge


through bridge

through lattice truss


bascule bridge

['paIplaIn]

["rqudkAm'reIl'brIG]

["ri:In'fO:st]

['keIbl'steId'brIG]

['bi:mbrIG]

['freImtaIp'brIG]

['bi:m'kxntIli:vq'brIG]


[kqm'baInd'hQ:fTru: 'brIG]


['Tru: 'brIG]

['Tru: 'lxtIs'trAs]


['bxskjulbrIG]

трубопровод

совмещенный мост (для автомобильного и ж/д транспорта)

железобетонный

вантовый мост

балочный мост

рамный мост

балочно-консольный мост

комбинированный мост с ездой посередине

мост с ездой понизу

сквозная ферма с ездой понизу

разводной; подъемный мост

^ Find the words you have read in the text below and translate the word combinations having these words. Use the words in the sentences of your own.


II. Work in pairs. Think of 2 or 3 questions using the words from Ex. I. Answer the questions of your partner.


III. Look through the text and say how bridges are classified in technical literature.
^ Bridges Classification
It has already been mentioned that bridges in a wide sense of this term mean constructional works comprising a superstruc­ture and a substructure. In a narrow sense this term means a structure built to provide a crossing over a river.

In technical literature bridges are classified according to their indications as follows:

Indication №1—by the main road function.

    1. Railway bridges.

    2. Motorway bridges.

    3. Foot-bridges (Pedestrian bridges).

    4. City bridges.

    5. Pipe lines.

    6. Metro-bridges.

    7. Combined systems or road-cum-rail bridges (carrying various means of transport).

Indication №2—by the superstructure material.

2.1. Timber bridges (wooden bridges).

2.2. Stone bridges (masonry bridges).

2.3. Reinforced concrete bridges.

2.4. Metal bridges.

2.5. Steel reinforced concrete bridges (composite bridges).

2.6. Suspension bridges.

2.7. Cable-stayed bridges.

The suspension and cable-stayed bridges include the structures with the flexible stayed ropes as the main carrying element. Curvilinear ropes are used for suspension bridges and rectilinear ropes are used for cable-stayed structures. The ropes are made of metal wire strands and that is why suspension and cable-stayed structures can be regarded as variants of metal bridges.

Indication № 3 – by a structural model.

    1. Beam bridges. (Spans of rectangular shape rest on supports).

    2. Arch bridges. (A curvilinear structure produces a horizontal thrust through skewbacks to the supports).

    3. Frame-type bridges. (Spans and supports are all indivisible rigid structure).

    4. Cantilever bridges. (These structures include cantilever arms, i.e. elements built out of their supports).

    5. Combined systems. (They consist of several simple structures – beam + arch).

Indication № 4 – by the position of the bridge floor.

    1. Deck bridges.

    2. Through bridges.

    3. Half-through bridges.

Indication № 5 – by the overall bridge length.

  1. Short bridges (up to 25 m long).

  2. Medium bridges (from 25 to 100 m long).

  3. Long bridges (more than 100 m long).

Indication № 6 – by the number of spans.

    1. Single-span bridges.

    2. Double-span bridges.

    3. Three-span bridges.

    4. Multi-span bridges.

Indication № 7 – by the service life.

  1. Permanent bridges. (Service life is 80-100 years.)

  2. Temporary bridges. (Service life is about 10-15 years.)

  3. Short-term bridges. (They are built for the period from two – three days to one year.)

In addition to the mentioned bridge types there are drawbridges (movable bridges), floating (raft) bridges and the ferrying.


^ IV. Match the English and the Russian equivalents.

masonry bridge

wire strand

footbridge

ferrying

permanent bridge

cantilever arm

пешеходный мост

каменный мост

консоль моста

капитальный мост

паромная переправа

проволочная прядь


^ V. Use the words in the list to write the opposite of the phrases below.

long, temporary, pedestrian, single-span, vertical, flexible

1 short bridge ≠

2 multi-span bridge ≠

3 permanent bridge ≠

4 motorway bridge ≠

5 horizontal thrust ≠

6 rigid structure ≠

^ What indication do the bridges from 1 – 4 refer to?


VI. Complete the following sentences. Choose your answers from the box. There are more words than you will need.

1. City bridges comprise the structures built in a city which bear the loads from … and pedestrians.

  1. The majority of railway bridges are … bridges because these structures are the safest under operation.

  2. The bridge bearing of arch bridges transfer not only a vertical load to the supports but the horizontal … as well.

  3. Frame-type bridges usually serve as overbridges or trestle bridges due to their small support … .

  4. Combined systems are widely used in cities largely because of their … merits.

  5. Temporary bridges and short-term bridges have as a rule … supports and steel spans.

  6. Floating bridges are often used as … bridges.




planes thrust length suspension architectural timber width short-term automobiles beam long-term


VII. Look at the following diagram. What is the base of this classification? Can you complete it? Draw a similar diagram in your notebook and let your partner complete it.



VIII. Complete the following sentences without looking back at the text.

1. The term «bridge» means …

2. According to their function bridges are classified into …

3. According to the superstructure material bridges are classified into …

4. A suspension bridge consists of …

5. Service life of temporary bridges is …

6. Combined systems consist of …

7. I know different types of bridges, for example …


^ IX. Try to define types of the bridges in the pictures below.

Fig. 1





Fig. 2




^ Fig. 3


Fig. 4

 Home Exercises


I. Memorize the words from Ex. I page 22.


II. Describe different bridge structures using information in III and VI and your own ideas.

Beam bridges, arch bridges, drawbridges, cable-stayed bridges, combined bridges, cantilever bridges, suspension bridges, permanent bridges.

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